The ‘estimative index’ (EI) is a fertilizer concept originated by Tom Barr where the general idea is to never have plant nutrients be limiting in the water column. Plants will grow and generally outcompete algae (so the theory goes). In practice, while I’m sure the outcompeting part is a factor, the algaecidal properties of “liquid carbon” are doubtless also a big help. In any event there are a couple of attractive features to the concept:
- “excess” fertilizer does not promote growth of algae over other plants, so you don’t have to worry about for example having your nitrates or phosphates be super-low as an attempted algae control measure
- it’s good enough to estimate how much fertilizer you’re going to need, so you can do some upfront calculations and then there’s no need for a lot of expensive/inaccurate water test kits. Sort of a set-it and forget-it approach.
Fertilizers are divided into two types: ‘macros’ which includes the big ones like nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (the ‘NPK’ reading in fertilizers) and the ‘micros’ including iron, copper (not too much), cobalt, manganese etc. Macros are dosed on days 1,3,5 each week and micros are dosed on days 2,4,6 each week. Day 7 you rest (heh) and then on day 1 of the next week, you do a 50% water change, and then start the cycle again (dosing the macros right after the water change). If you’re doing liquid carbon, you can dose that every day. You don’t dose the macros and micros on the same day because (so the story goes) the iron in the micros will form insoluble precipitates with components of the macros. I’m not sure how true that is, but alternating the dosing days is simple enough. The 50% weekly water change is important to reset the amount of fertilizers so you don’t get a weekly buildup.
Your most cost effective and customisable way is to mix your own macro fertilizer solutions and micro fertilizer solutions from “dry salts” which is to say, from actual pure chemical components. You can get these from many places, but I like AquariumPlantFood which has affordable and convenient options. Lots of resources and calculators for this:
Aquarium macro fertiliser concentrations
Target fertiliser concentrations
Macro mix components
I make up 500 ml solutions each of macro and micro and on the dosing days I add 8 ml of the appropriate solution to the estimated 40 L of water in the aquarium. My current weekly dosing target (so split over the 3 doses per week) is:
To get to those concentrations I make a stock solution of macros by dissolving the salts with water up to a total volume of 500 ml (I have been using deionised but tap water is probably fine):
Note: the salts will dissolve more easily if you use hot water
When you math it all up the actual concentrations are a pretty good match to the targets. They’re not an exact match but that’s ok because we have an ‘Estimative’ philosophy here, and anyway the contribution from components in tap water used in the weekly water changes is also unknown.
- 25 ppm potassium
- 15 ppm nitrate
- 3 ppm phosphate
- 5 ppm magnesium
- 3.5 tsp KNO3 (21g)
- 0.5 tsp KH2PO4 (3.3g)
- 8 tsp MgSO4-7H2O (40.8g)
- 5 tsp K2SO4 (25.5g)
- 24.6 ppm potassium
- 15.5 ppm nitrate
- 2.8 ppm phosphate
- 4.8 ppm magnesium
- 36.0 ppm sulphate (along for the ride)
I don’t do any calculations* for the trace elements in the micros; I just use a purchased pre-mixed dry salt pouch.
There’s no real detrimental upper limit to how much sulphate you have in the water, so if you want to boost up one of the components, adding the sulphate version is good. I like more potassium for the plants which is why I add the K2SO4 (this is listed as ‘optional’ rather than part of the core EI method as such) instead of either KNO3 (which would also increase nitrates) or KH2PO4 (which would also increase phosphates).
The fish, shrimp and snails seem completely unperturbed by the whole process. The fish get very excited when I squirt in the 8 ml of the appropriate fertilizer stock solution in the morning using a 10 ml syringe – they must figure it’s a food delivery and come up to check it out.
Aquarium micro nutrient concentrations
The micro nutrients come in at around 1/100th the level of the macro nutrients.
*Mathing up the Chelated Trace components (for the sake of completeness). 1 tsp (6g) mix per 500 ml stock solution, adding 8 ml stock x3 per week
Dry powder mix
- Fe 8.2% (EDTA Chelated)
- Mn 1.82% (EDTA Chelated)
- Zn 1.16% (EDTA Chelated)
- B 1.05%
- Cu 0.23% (EDTA Chelated)
- Mo 0.15%
Weekly in tank ppm
The plants look good with no obvious signs of micronutrient deficiences so I’ll just keep on keeping on with these.